The only official language of Pakistan is Urdu whereas English is the lingua franca of Pakistani elites and most of government ministries. Other languages spoken are Punjabi, Siraiki, Sindhi, Pashto, Balochi, Hindko, Brahui, Burushaski, Balti, Khawar, Gujrati and other languages with smaller numbers of speakers .
RELIGION AND BELIEFS
97 Per cent of the population is Muslim, out of which 77 per cent are Sunni and 20 per cent are Shi’a. Christian, Hindu and others comprise of the remaining 3 per cent.
Islam is the most widely practiced religion and it governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives.
Muslims pray five times a day: dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset and evening. Friday is the Muslim holiday and everything remains closed. During the holy month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from dawn to dusk which includes no eating, no drinking, smoking cigarette, chewing gum, etc.
MARRIAGE, FAMILY AND KINSHIP
Extended family is the most popular basis of social structure. It includes nuclear family, immediate relatives, distant relatives, tribe members, friends and neighbors. Family size is quite large having up to 6 children. Nepotism can be seen very commonly as loyalty to the family comes ahead of all other social relationships. Female members of the family are protected and it is considered inappropriate to ask questions to Pakistani wives or daughters.
The main form of Muslim marriage is Nikah which includes a legal document signed by bride and groom in front of other witness. Other form of marriage is Lagan.
Women do have inheritence right in Pakistan so that benefits can go to women and children after the death of husband or father.
Maximum people in Pakistan eat three meals a day which are breakfast, lunch and dinner. Breakfast includes bread, tea, biscuits, eggs, etc. Lunch includes rice and meat based curry. Dinner is shared as a family and it includes one or more of the following dishes: Kofte, Korma, Biryani, Pulao, Lentils, Roti or Naan. Meat is halal and the cuisine depends on the geography.
There are mainly two food customs: Muslims do not eat pork and fasting is a daily activity during Ramadan.
Pakistan is very rich in art and craft. Pakistan has been referred to as a land of poetry and it has been said that almost every Pakistani has written some poem. Different forms of arts are practiced such as Arabic calligraphy, Naqashi, Glass chooriyan, Pottery, etc.
Some subjects are considered to be taboo in Pakistan such as sex, homosexuality, dating, alcohol and challenging Islamic believes .
APPLYING ROSTOW’S MODERNIZATION THEORY
Pakistan is a developing country which is self-sufficient in most of its food production. It has also been a leading producer of cotton as well as cotton textile. Pakistan has a very diverse base of manufactured products for domestic and export purpose.
As per Rostow’s Modernization theory, Pakistan is currently at its second phase which is “preconditions for takeoff”. According to Federal Bureau of Statistics, 2010- 2011, forty- five percent of population in Pakistan are involved in agriculture and it contributes to 20.9 per cent to country’s GDP. There was a rapid improvement in plantation, mining, manufacturing, and industrialization during the 80s. Also, due to liberal investment policy in Pakistan, its unique market value and location, it could attract foreign investment. Textile and telecom emerged as a very important sector. This overall achievement in terms of agriculture, production, marketing has lifted a lot of population out of poverty. Even if the achievement is great, it is still insignificant compared to the miss opportunities. Pakistan neglected human development. Pakistan is unable to take off as its literacy rate is only close to 50. Also, problems such as energy crisis, poverty, unstable government, inflation etc. still makes Pakistan a developing country.
In order to take off and reach a sustained economic growth, there has to be new investment in the industries. The main problem is lack of skilled manpower and capital for investment. So, the first priority should human development and skill development for Pakistan to take off.
Image source 1: http://eacpe.org/contributed-articles/pakistan-and-its-official-language/
Image source 3: http://www.sociable7.com/2014/11/06/pakistani-wedding-traditions/
Image source 4: https://www.parhlo.com/pakistani-foods-that-all-pardesi-pakistanis-miss/
Image source 5: http://pakteahouse.net/2008/09/17/pakistans-truck-art/
 Commisceo Global. (n.d.). Pakistan Guide. Retrieved from http://www.commisceo-global.com/country-guides/pakistan-guide
 Countries and their culture. (n.d.). Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/No-Sa/Pakistan.html
 Project of development economics. (n.d.). Rostow’s stages of growth. Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/doc/31503694/Critical-Analysis-of-Rostow-s-Growth-Theory-With-Reference-to-Pakistan